Direct somatic embryogenesis is the formation of somatic embryos or embryo-genic tissue directly from the explant without the formation of an intermediate callus phase (Raghavan 1986). … The production of a callus usually is undesirable if embryogenesis is the goal of the research.
What is indirect somatic embryogenesis?
occurs when explants produced undifferentiated, or partially differentiated, cells (often referred to as callus) which then is maintained or differentiated into plant tissues such as leaf, stem, or roots.
What is direct organogenesis?
Direct organogenesis, embryogenesis, micro grafting, meristem culture and its importance for fruit crops. … Organogenesis takes place in two stages, namely caulogenesis or shoot initiation and rhizogenesis or root initiation. Both types of organogenesis are controlled by the hormones present in the medium.
What are the types of somatic embryogenesis?
There are two different ways of inducting somatic embryogenesis including direct somatic embryogenesis and indirect somatic embryogenesis (Yang and Zhang, 2010). In direct somatic embryogenesis, somatic embryos can be directly induced from the explant under certain conditions without any intermediate callus stage.
What are the application of somatic embryogenesis?
Application of somatic embryogenesis
Here, it plays a critical role in clonal propagation, synthetic seed production, germplasm conservation, and cryopreservation. It is used for rapid large-scale propagation of plants for the production of secondary compounds and drugs.
What is the difference between Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis?
The major difference between organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is that organogenesis is the process which generates plant organs including shoot and root from vegetative tissue while somatic embryogenesis is the process which generates embryonic callus from vegetative tissue.
What does somatic mean?
1 : of, relating to, or affecting the body especially as distinguished from the germplasm. 2 : of or relating to the wall of the body : parietal.
What are the types of organogenesis?
There are three ways of organogenesis (by which adventitious organs form): (1) from the callus culture, (2) from an explant, and (3) from the axillary bud. The organogenesis by axillary bud development can be used to regenerate the whole plant from some types of tissue culture.
What hormones are important Organogenesis?
There are five main types of plant hormones which are the auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. Auxin is the hormone that causes the plants to carry out cell division and elongation (Chawla, 2009).
What is the organogenesis process?
Organogenesis is the process by which the three germ tissue layers of the embryo, which are the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, develop into the internal organs of the organism. … The ectoderm forms epithelial cells and tissues, as well as neuronal tissues.
What are the factors affecting somatic embryogenesis?
Factors Affecting Somatic Embryogenesis
- Explant. The choice of explant depends on the species of plant to be induced for embryogenesis. …
- Genotype. The genotypic variation between the plants also affects the process of embryogenesis. …
- Growth Regulators. …
- Nitrogen Source. …
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How is somatic hybridization carried out?
Several steps are involved in the somatic hybridization process such as (1) the source of protoplasts, (2) the isolation of protoplasts, (3) plating of protoplasts, (4) regeneration of plants, (5) fusion of protoplasts, (6) selection procedures, and (7) identification and characterization of the somatic hybrid plants.
What is somatic embryogenesis PPT?
SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS • A process where an embryo is derived from a single somatic cell or group of somatic cells. Somatic embryos (SEs) are formed from plant cells that are not normally involved in embryo formation.
What is the definition of somatic cells?
A somatic cell is any cell of the body except sperm and egg cells. Somatic cells are diploid, meaning that they contain two sets of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent.
WHO reported somatic embryogenesis in carrot?
In 1958, Steward et al. reported the first evidence of somatic embryogenesis with carrot (Daucus carota) cell suspension cultures, which had great similarities with zygotic embryogenesis . Somatic embryogenesis is defined as the propagation of the embryo or plant from single or a group of vegetative cells.
Which of the following is the main application of embryo culture?
Isolation of hybrid embryos at the immature stage i.e., before abortion and their culture in vitro may circumvent strong post-zygotic barriers. To raise the rare hybrids by rescuing embryos from incompatible crosses is the most popular application of embryo culture.